It is important to avoid "co-mingling" your personal funds with the company`s funds - so when you provide money to the corporation - it should be documented as either a loan or an investment of capital.
Generally the Articles of Incorporation (which creates the entity) state how many shares and of what type the corporation is authorized to issue. It is usual for the company to retain some shares in reserve as unissued. In most states, the process to change the number of authorized shared is pretty simple - you file an amendment to the Articles. Be aware, however, that some states charge a fee based upon the number of shares or the projected book value of the company.
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I`m not up to speed on Canadian tax laws but in the States, generally:
1. Capital received by the corporation as a loan is not treated as income.
2. The interest portion of loan repayments is usually income to the lender.
Generally speaking, when the company (corporation) takes in capital the transaction is a loan, the sale of a security or revenue. If it is not a loan and not revenue then the company should issue some type of security and exchange it for the funds.
If the articles of incorporation authorized shares that have not been issued then an amendment may not be required. However, if all authorized shares have been issued then one must file an amendment with the State where the corporation was established.